The Kubernetes community recently announced the release of Kubernetes 1.22. This release consists of 53 enhancements: 13 enhancements have graduated to stable, 24 enhancements are moving to beta, and 16 enhancements are entering alpha. Also, three features have been deprecated.
Server-side Apply graduates to GA
Server-side Apply is a new field ownership and object merge algorithm running on the Kubernetes API server. Server-side Apply helps users and controllers manage their resources via declarative configurations. It allows them to create and/or modify their objects declaratively, simply by sending their fully specified intent. After being in beta for a couple releases, Server-side Apply is now generally available.
External credential providers now stable
Support for Kubernetes client credential plugins has been in beta since 1.11, and with the release of Kubernetes 1.22 now graduates to stable. The GA feature set includes improved support for plugins that provide interactive login flows, as well as a number of bug fixes. Aspiring plugin authors can look at sample-exec-plugin to get started.
etcd moves to 3.5.0
Kubernetes’ default backend storage, etcd, has a new release: 3.5.0. The new release comes with improvements to the security, performance, monitoring, and developer experience. There are numerous bug fixes and some critical new features like the migration to structured logging and built-in log rotation. The release comes with a detailed future roadmap to implement a solution to traffic overload. You can read a full and detailed list of changes in the 3.5.0 release announcement.
Quality of Service for memory resources
Originally, Kubernetes used the v1 cgroups API. With that design, the QoS class for a Pod only applied to CPU resources (such as cpu_shares). As an alpha feature, Kubernetes v1.22 can now use the cgroups v2 API to control memory allocation and isolation. This feature is designed to improve workload and node availability when there is contention for memory resources, and to improve the predictability of container lifecycle.
Node system swap support
Every system administrator or Kubernetes user has been in the same boat regarding setting up and using Kubernetes: disable swap space. With the release of Kubernetes 1.22, alpha support is available to run nodes with swap memory. This change lets administrators opt in to configuring swap on Linux nodes, treating a portion of block storage as additional virtual memory.
Windows enhancements and capabilities
Continuing to support the growing developer community, SIG Windows has released their Development Environment. These new tools support multiple CNI providers and can run on multiple platforms. There is also a new way to run bleeding-edge Windows features from scratch by compiling the Windows kubelet and kube-proxy, then using them along with daily builds of other Kubernetes components.
CSI support for Windows nodes moves to GA in the 1.22 release. In Kubernetes v1.22, Windows privileged containers are an alpha feature. To allow using CSI storage on Windows nodes, CSIProxy enables CSI node plugins to be deployed as unprivileged pods, using the proxy to perform privileged storage operations on the node.
Default profiles for seccomp
An alpha feature for default seccomp profiles has been added to the kubelet, along with a new command line flag and configuration. When in use, this new feature provides cluster-wide seccomp defaults, using the RuntimeDefault seccomp profile rather than Unconfined by default. This enhances the default security of the Kubernetes Deployment. Security administrators will now sleep better knowing that workloads are more secure by default. To learn more about the feature, please refer to the official seccomp tutorial.
More secure control plane with kubeadm
A new alpha feature allows running the kubeadm control plane components as non-root users. This is a long requested security measure in kubeadm. To try it you must enable the kubeadm specific RootlessControlPlane feature gate. When you deploy a cluster using this alpha feature, your control plane runs with lower privileges.
For kubeadm, Kubernetes 1.22 also brings a new v1beta3 configuration API. This iteration adds some long requested features and deprecates some existing ones. The v1beta3 version is now the preferred API version; the v1beta2 API also remains available and is not yet deprecated.
Removal of several deprecated beta APIs
A number of deprecated beta APIs have been removed in 1.22 in favor of the GA version of those same APIs. All existing objects can be interacted with via stable APIs. This removal includes beta versions of the Ingress, IngressClass, Lease, APIService, ValidatingWebhookConfiguration, MutatingWebhookConfiguration, CustomResourceDefinition, TokenReview, SubjectAccessReview, and CertificateSigningRequest APIs.
For the full list, check out the Deprecated API Migration Guide as well as the blog post Kubernetes API and Feature Removals In 1.22: Here’s What You Need To Know.
API changes and improvements for ephemeral containers
The API used to create Ephemeral Containers changes in 1.22. The Ephemeral Containers feature is alpha and disabled by default, and the new API does not work with clients that attempt to use the old API.
For stable features, the kubectl tool follows the Kubernetes version skew policy; however, kubectl v1.21 and older do not support the new API for ephemeral containers. If you plan to use kubectl debug to create ephemeral containers, and your cluster is running Kubernetes v1.22, you cannot do so with kubectl v1.21 or earlier. Please update kubectl to 1.22 if you wish to use kubectl debug with a mix of cluster versions.
Graduated to Stable
- Bound Service Account Token Volumes
- CSI Service Account Token
- Windows Support for CSI Plugins
- Warning mechanism for deprecated API use
- PodDisruptionBudget Eviction
Notable Feature Updates
- A new PodSecurity admission alpha feature is introduced, intended as a replacement for PodSecurityPolicy
- The Memory Manager moves to beta
- A new alpha feature to enable API Server Tracing
- A new v1beta3 version of the kubeadm configuration format
- Generic data populators for PersistentVolumes are now available in alpha
- The Kubernetes control plane will now always use the CronJobs v2 controller
- As an alpha feature, all Kubernetes node components (including the kubelet, kube-proxy, and container runtime) can be run as a non-root user
You can check out the full details of the 1.22 release in the release notes.
Availability of release
There are some great resources out there for getting started with Kubernetes. You can check out some interactive tutorials on the main Kubernetes site, or run a local cluster on your machine using Docker containers with kind. If you’d like to try building a cluster from scratch, check out the Kubernetes the Hard Way tutorial by Kelsey Hightower.